Uro-oncology is a branch of medical science that deals with the cancer and its treatments urinary systems and male reproductive systems. The cancers that come under this category include cancers of adrenal gland, kidney, bladder, ureter, prostate, testis, penis etc. The treatment and management of urological cancers is changing very rapidly. These patients often require multispecialty care from urologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, uropathologists, reconstructive surgeons, psychiatrists, nuclear physicians, psychologists, pain and palliative care physicians etc. A brief description of the important types of cancers dealt with in uro-oncology is detailed below.
Prostate cancer: Prostate is a walnut sized organ found between the rectum and pubic bone. Prostate wraps round the urethra which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Prostate cancer at first develops from the cells in the prostate gland and slowly spreads around. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer found among men worldwide. Laparoscopic radical prostectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for removing the prostate gland from suitable candidates.
Kidney cancer: kidney cancer is commonly found in men in the age group of 40-70 with double frequency than in women. Smoking, excessive weight, high fat diet, hypertension etc are risk factors for kidney cancer. In the earlier days removal of kidney through an open surgery called total nephrectomy was the surgical procedure followed for removing the kidney. Now patients with small kidney tumors need to undergo only a minimally invasive surgical procedure called laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
Bladder cancer: Bladder is situated in the center of the lower belly and this is the storage area of urine from where it is passed through urethra to the outside. Smoking, certain chemicals in the environment, hereditary factors etc are probable risk factors for bladder cancer. It is found commonly in men and whites and aged people. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT) is the name of the surgical procedure followed to remove the cancerous growth from bladder. Radical cystectomy is the name of another surgical procedure in which bladder is usually removed. Special arrangements to drain the urine after the removal of the bladder will be made during the surgery.
Adrenal cancer: Adrenal glands are a pair of organs situated on top of the kidneys. These glands produce hormones that are responsible for blood pressure, blood sugar level and the body fluids, electrolytes balance and blood pressure. Tumors in the adrenal glands occur in the age group of 20-50. Cones disease and pheochromocytoma stems from adrenal cancer. Laparoscopic adrenelectomy is the name of minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure followed by surgeons to remove the adrenal gland.