What is laparoscopy

What is urology?
Urology is a branch of medicine which focuses on the study of the urinary tract systems of male and female and reproductive organs of male. Kidneys, urethra, urinary bladder, adrenal glands and male reproductive organs like testis, penis, prostate, epididymis, vas deferens seminal vesicles etc are the main organs that come under the category of this study.

What is laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. This procedure is also known as keyhole surgery. In this procedure, the surgery is carried out with the help of three or four small incisions of the size to 1 to 2 cms. A laparoscope is an instrument with a camera on one end of a long flexible tube the other end of which is connected to the monitor placed in front of the surgeon. The laparoscope and other special instruments used for carrying out this surgery are inserted through these small incisions. The surgeon carefully guides these instruments through the body till it reaches the surgical spot. The surgeon watches the enlarged videos of the internal organs and the surgery being carried out taken by the laparoscope. Seeing this video and controlling the other special instruments through its controls which are available near him, the surgeon carries out the surgery.
First laparoscopic surgery in nephrectomy was carried out by Clayman in the year 1990.
Ever since its inception in nephrectomy numerous laparoscopic procedures have been developed. Almost all complex procedures on the kidney, Adrenals, ureter, bladder and prostate are now very easily carried out through laparoscopic procedures.

Advantages of laparoscopic procedure
As these surgeries are carried out with small incisions, it decreases the pain and stress on the body and blood loss will also be less in these procedures. So the healing and recovery will be faster. Period of hospital stay will be lesser and the patient will be able to return to his normal activities at an early date. Post operative pain will be about 20 times less than in an open surgery which is carried out with an incision of about 6 to 8 inches long. The surgical cost may seem to be little bit higher in laparoscopic procedure, but the overall cost has been found to be around 20 % lesser when compared to an open surgery.

Disadvantages
The learning curve for this procedure is comparatively longer and hence all departments may not be able to provide this type of approach. Further this procedure needs costly equipments and as this a developing filed of medical science, constant upgrading will be necessary for keeping the hospitals well equipped with the cutting edge technologies that is evolving at a faster pace.