Congenital abnormalities are commonly found in kidneys. Some of these abnormalities may not be causing any problems to the normal functioning of the kidneys. But some of these abnormalities may be interfering in the normal functioning of the kidneys. Malformations of kidneys are often found to be combined with other congenital defects like underdeveloped pinna etc.
Obstruction of the kidney
Pelvi-ureteric Junction Obstruction is the commonest malformation seen in children. Please see PUJ obstruction under laparoscopy.
Other important malformations of the kidneys are detailed below.
Renal hypoplasia may result in the formation of one smaller kidney and one large kidney. Small kidney may be having small arteries and is naturally prone to hypertension for which nephrectomy will be required to be done.
In this type of abnormality one kidney is either absent or is underdeveloped. This usually does not cause any symptoms and hence they are not diagnosed normally.
Third kidney is very rare, but yet they are there. It is often confused as a duplication of the renal pelvis.
In new born babies one kidney is usually seen as serverly lobulated with cysts the ureter of which is often absent.
Simple renal cyst
Simple renal cyst found in kidneys are inherited or acquired and this usually does not cause any harm, but requires continuous follow up.
In rare cases the two kidneys are seen as fused together and is frequently seen as horseshoe shaped kidney with two ureters and two excretory systems. Such kidneys are usually asymptotic and usually causes obstruction to the flow of urine.
Ecopic kidneys are usually found in the pelvis and they are usually prone to infection and obstruction. In crossed ectopy the kidneys are found in the opposite side and are not attached to its normal position. Abnormal rotation of kideys are also common in ectopic kidneys.
Abnormalities of ureters
The absence of one or both of the ureters is commonly found in new born babies. In some cases it is seen that the ureter has not grown up to the bladder and end in between as a blind end. Duplication of bilateral ureters is another commonly found problem in new born female babies. Ectopic orifice of the ureter, obstructed mega ureter etc are also commonly seen problems connected to ureter in kidneys.
Abnormlities of urethra (male)
Absence of penis, micropenis, posterior urethral valves, urethral strictures etc are the common problems found in men in connection with the problems related to the urethra
Abnormlities of urethra (female)
Distal urethral stenosis, clitoral hypertrophy, labial fusion etc are the common problems related to urethra found in women. Abnormalities of bladder: Absence of the internal wall of the bladder, contracture of bladder neck etc are most common problems connected with bladder found in people with renal problems